University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

Development and Initial Validation of the Music Mood-Regulation Scale (MMRS).

Hewston, Ruth, Lane, A.M. and Karageorghis, C.I. (2008) Development and Initial Validation of the Music Mood-Regulation Scale (MMRS). E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 4 (1). pp. 15-22. ISSN 1832-7391

Full text not available from this repository.


This study designed a measure to assess the perceived effectiveness of music as a strategy to regulate mood among a sport and exercise population. A strategy of assessing and comparing the integrity of competing hypotheses to explain the underlying factor structure of the scale was used. A 21-item Music Mood-Regulation Scale (MMRS) was developed to assess the extent to which participants used music to alter the mood states of anger, calmness, depression, fatigue, happiness, tension, and vigor. Volunteer sport and exercise participants (N = 1,279) rated the perceived effectiveness of music to regulate each MMRS item on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the integrity of four competing models, and results lend support to a correlated 7-factor structure for the MMRS (RCFI = .94; RMSEA = .06). Cronbach alpha coefficients were in the range of 0.74 – 0.88 thus demonstrating the internal reliability of scales. It is suggested that the MMRS shows promising degrees of validity. Future research should assess the extent to which individuals can develop the ability to use music as a strategy to regulate mood in situations in which disturbed mood might be detrimental to performance.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information:

The full-text can be accessed via the Official URL. E-Journal of Applied Psychology is an Open Access Journal and is available via the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: Self-regulation, psychometric, measurement
Subjects: L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: College of Arts, Humanities and Education > School of Education
Copyright Info: Open Access Journal
Depositing User: Ruth Hewston
Date Deposited: 28 Apr 2014 09:14
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2020 17:03

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