University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

Temporal Intelligence in Leadership: The Conceptualisation and Evaluation of Temporal Individual Differences among Leaders

Doyle, Andrew (2012) Temporal Intelligence in Leadership: The Conceptualisation and Evaluation of Temporal Individual Differences among Leaders. PhD thesis, University of Worcester.

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Time is an important research variable within an organisational setting at an individual level of
analysis. For example, research has shown that the time-related behaviours of individual employees
predict outcome variables such as well-being and performance (Francis-Smythe & Robertson, 2003;
Slocombe & Bluedorn; 1999). There is, however, a limited understanding of the role of time in
leadership, as highlighted by a number of scholars (Halbesleben, Novicevic, Harvey & Buckley, 2003;
Gill, 2012). Adopting an individual level of analysis, this research aimed to identify the time-related
behaviours and cognitions that leaders express to the individuals they lead (i.e. their followers) and
how these vary among individual leaders. Following an individual-differences approach, a
psychological construct, temporal intelligence (TI), was developed and evaluated through
questionnaire research to represent the differences that occur among leaders in terms of the timerelated
behaviours and cognitions expressed to their followers. The results were used to draw
inferences about the nature of the TI construct and to explore the implications of TI for both
leadership research and practice.
A conceptual model of TI was initially developed through two literature reviews that examined over
500 articles originating from research on both time and leadership. The model proposed 13
dimensions of time. A repertory-grid interview study was conducted with 16 leaders to identify
behaviours and cognitions representing the 13 dimensions of time depicted in the model. The
findings from the interviews were used to develop items for the Temporal Intelligence
Questionnaire (TI-Q). Two empirical studies were conducted with the TI-Q. Study 1 (n=203
leaders) used factor and reliability analysis to reduce the original 13 dimensions of time proposed
by the TI model to eight dimensions, which were represented by 79 items. Results were interpreted
to conclude that there are eight dimensions characterising the time-related behavioural and cognitive
differences among leaders.
In study 2, 82 leaders completed the revised 79-item TI-Q, NEO PI-R personality measure and
Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X). The MLQ 5X represented both leadership
behaviour according to the Full-range Leadership Theory (FRLT) and leadership effectiveness (as
self-reported by the leader). Results showed that TI represents behaviours and cognitions distinct
from those measured by personality and leadership style (aligned to FRLT). Results were also shown
to bridge the gap between time as a research variable at an individual level of analysis and the
current conceptualisation of leadership behaviour captured by FRLT that posits the notions of
transformational and transactional leadership. Results from multi-linear regression analysis
showed that five of the eight dimensions of TI significantly predict self-reported leadership
effectiveness, which is defined by three variables: work unit performance, subordinate effort and
subordinate satisfaction. Moreover, these relationships were also demonstrated when both
transformational and transactional leadership variables were entered into the regression equation.
These results were interpreted to suggest that TI offers a further means for understanding how to
achieve a higher level of leadership effectiveness than that accounted for by notions of
transformational and transactional leadership.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information:

A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy (Ph.D) A print version of this PhD thesis is held on Level 4 at the Hive.

Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: temporal intelligence, leadership, temporal individual differences, time-related behaviour
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: College of Business, Psychology and Sport > Worcester Business School
Depositing User: Janet Davidson
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2013 10:02
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2020 16:59

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