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Amlexanox-loaded nanoliposomes showing enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in cultured macrophages: A potential formulation for treatment of oral aphthous stomatitis

Abouzid, A., Moustafa, A. Y., Allcock, N., Najlah, M., Elhissi, A., Stanley, C. W., Ahmed, W., Seville, Peter ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8546-3474, Crean, S. J., Forbes, R. T. and Elsawy, M. A. (2022) Amlexanox-loaded nanoliposomes showing enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in cultured macrophages: A potential formulation for treatment of oral aphthous stomatitis. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 79 (104052). ISSN 2588-8943

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Abstract

Oral aphthous stomatitis is a common disorder treated with the immunomodulatory drug Amlexanox (AMX), that was administered as a mucoadhesive paste (Aphthasol®). This product was discontinued by FDA in 2014 due to the associated undesired adverse reactions of the formulation. Here, we have developed AMX-loaded nanoliposome formulation as a potential alternative for the localised oromucosal delivery of AMX. Nanoliposomes were prepared using Soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and Cholesterol (Chol) mixtures at three different molar ratios to formulate vesicles using thin-film hydration, and were characterised for size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency. The optimal formulation was found to be SPC:Chol 3:1 with drug entrapment efficiency of 94%, post sonication. To evaluate anti-inflammatory activity, macrophages developed by differentiation of human leukaemia monocytic cell line, THP-1, were polarised by Interferon gamma (IFNγ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to M1 state. Macrophages M1 cells treated with D-L1 formulation (SPC:Chol 3:1, 500 μg/mL total lipid, and 27.6 μM AMX) showed a significant suppression in TNF-α expression levels (43 ± 2.7% of untreated control, p < 0.05) compared to those treated with either empty liposomes or AMX alone. Notably, %TNF-α dramatically decreased to 57 ± 4.05% of control, for cells treated with drug-free liposomes (500 μg/mL total lipid) indicating the anti-inflammatory activity of SPC lipid component per se, which led to synergistic effect as evident from the augmentation of AMX anti-inflammatory activity in D-L1 formulation. Our findings highlight the potential of using AMX nanoliposomes as a promising advanced formulation for reviving AMX treatment for management of inflammatory conditions of oral mucosa.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: Amlexanox, Anti-inflammatory, Aphthous stomatitis, Liposomes, Macrophages, Oral ulcers
Divisions: College of Health, Life and Environmental Sciences > School of Science and the Environment
Copyright Info: © 2022 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Depositing User: Miranda Jones
Date Deposited: 23 Dec 2022 11:31
Last Modified: 23 Dec 2022 11:31
URI: https://eprints.worc.ac.uk/id/eprint/12676

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