University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

The effect of forming implementation intentions on alcohol consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Cooke, R., McEwan, Helen and Norman, P. (2022) The effect of forming implementation intentions on alcohol consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug and Alcohol Review. ISSN 1465-3362

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Meta-analysis was used to estimate the effect of forming implementation intentions (i.e., if-then plans) on weekly alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Sample type, mode of delivery, intervention format and timeframe were tested as moderator variables.

Cochrane, EThOS, Google Scholar, PsychArticles, PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant publications to 31 March 2021. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the effect size difference (d) between individuals forming versus not forming implementation intentions on weekly consumption and HED.

Key Findings
Sixteen studies were included in meta-analyses. The effect size difference for forming implementation intentions on weekly alcohol consumption was d+ = −0.14 confidence interval (CI) [−0.24; −0.03]. Moderator analyses highlighted stronger effects for: (i) community (d+ = −0.38, CI [−0.58; −0.18]) versus university (d+ = −0.04, CI [−0.13; 0.05]) samples; (ii) paper (d+ = −0.26, CI [−0.43; −0.09]) versus online (d+ = −0.04, CI [−0.14; 0.06]) mode of delivery; and (iii) volitional help sheet (d+ = −0.34, CI [−0.60; −0.07]) versus implementation intention format (d+ = −0.07, CI [−0.16; 0.02]). In addition, effects diminished over time (B = 0.02, SE = 0.01, CI [0.03; 0.01]). Forming implementation intentions had a null effect on HED, d+ = −0.01 CI [−0.10; 0.08].

Forming implementation intentions reduces weekly consumption but has no effect on HED.

This review identifies boundary conditions on the effectiveness of implementation intentions to reduce alcohol consumption. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of online-delivered interventions and integrating implementation intention and motivational interventions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information:

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: alcohol, heavy episodic drinking, if-then plans, implementation intentions, volitional help sheet
Divisions: College of Business, Psychology and Sport > School of Psychology
Copyright Info: © 2022 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Depositing User: Miranda Jones
Date Deposited: 15 Dec 2022 18:29
Last Modified: 15 Dec 2022 18:29

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