University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

Development of a Pain and Discomfort Module for use with the WHOQOL-100

Mason, Victoria, Skevington, S.M. and Osborn, M. (2004) Development of a Pain and Discomfort Module for use with the WHOQOL-100. Quality of Life Research, 13 (6). pp. 1139-1152. ISSN 0962-9343 (Print) 1573-2649 (Online)

Full text not available from this repository.


Clinicians and researchers have become increasingly interested in the impact of chronic pain (CP) on
quality of life (QoL). This report describes the qualitative stages of developing a pain and discomfort
module for persons with CP to be used with the UK World Health Organisation generic measure of quality
of life (WHOQOL). The aims were to investigate patients’ perceptions of CP and its effect on QoL, and to
generate items to be used in the development of a module appended to the UK WHOQOL-100. At the first
stage (Study 1), six focus groups of patients were invited to discuss how living with pain and discomfort
affected QoL. At the second stage (Study 2), an international web survey was conducted with English
speaking respondents. Ten new facets of QoL were identified by the focus groups: flare-ups, pain relief,
anger and frustration, vulnerability/fear/worry, uncertainty, loss/loneliness/feeling alone, positive strategies,
communication, guilt and burdening others, and relationship with health care providers. The websurvey
confirmed and validated these new facets. Although the WHOQOL-100 is a reliable and valid
measure of QoL for use in CP, this study shows that additional areas must be assessed when measuring the
impact of CP on QoL.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information:

The original publication is available at

Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: chronic pain, quality of life, discomfort, pain, web-survey, WHOQOL
Subjects: R Medicine > RB Pathology
Divisions: College of Business, Psychology and Sport > School of Psychology
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Victoria Mason-Robbie
Date Deposited: 13 Jul 2007 12:19
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2020 16:48

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item
Worcester Research and Publications is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. More information and software credits.