University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

Combined Active and Passive Heat Exposure Induced Heat Acclimation in a Soccer Referee Before 2014 FIFA World Cup

Ruddock, A.D., Thompson, S.W., Hudson, S.A., James, C.A., Gibson, O.R. and Mee, Jessica A. (2016) Combined Active and Passive Heat Exposure Induced Heat Acclimation in a Soccer Referee Before 2014 FIFA World Cup. SpringerPlus, 5. Article no. 617. ISSN Online: 2193-1801

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Introduction:The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in Brazil, where the climatic condi-tions presented a significant thermoregulatory and perceptual challenge to those unfamiliar with the heat and humidity.Case presentation:This case report documents the adaptation induced by a novel mixed methods (isothermic and passive) heat acclimation (HA) regime for a northern European professional soccer match official prior to the tournament. The intervention involved 13 HA sessions over an 18day period comprising five isothermic HA sessions whereby intermittent running was used to target and maintain tympanic temperature ( Tytemp) at 38°C for 90min, and seven passive HA sessions of 48°C water bathing for 30min. The athlete performed a heat stress test (HST ) (35min running at four incre-mental intensities in 30°C) and a repeated high-intensity running test (as many 30s self-paced efforts as possible, to a maximum of 20, with 30s passive recovery) before and after the intervention. The mixed methods HA regime increased plasma volume (+7.1%), and sweat loss (+0.9 Lh−1), reduced exercising Tytemp (−0.6°C), and mean body temperature (−0.5°C). High-intensity running performance improved after HA (+29%), as did the perception of thermal comfort during exercise (−0.3 units).Conclusion:This data evidences the effectiveness of a practical, mixed methods HA strategy, remotely implemented around training and competition, at inducing the heat acclimation phenotype in a high-level soccer match official.

Item Type: Article
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This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: interval training, core temperature, exercise, performance, plasma volume, thermoregulation, hyperthermia, aerobic
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
Divisions: College of Business, Psychology and Sport > School of Sport and Exercise Science
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Copyright Info: Open access journal
Depositing User: Jessica Mee
Date Deposited: 06 Jun 2019 12:26
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2020 17:30

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