University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

Improving the Psychometric Utility of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32): a Rasch Analysis Approach

Court, H., Forty, L., Jones, Lisa ORCID:, Gordon-Smith, Katherine ORCID:, Jones, I., Craddock, N. and Smith, D.J. (2014) Improving the Psychometric Utility of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32): a Rasch Analysis Approach. Journal of Affective Disorders, 152-4. pp. 448-453. ISSN Online: 0165-0327

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The HCL-32 is a widely-used screening questionnaire for hypomania. We aimed to use a Rasch analysis approach to (i) evaluate the measurement properties, principally unidimensionality, of the HCL-32, and (ii) generate a score table to allow researchers to convert raw HCL-32 scores into an interval-level measurement which will be more appropriate for statistical analyses.


Subjects were part of the Bipolar Disorder Research Network (BDRN) study with DSM-IV bipolar disorder (n=389). Multidimensionality was assessed using the Rasch fit statistics and principle components analysis of the residuals (PCA). Item invariance (differential item functioning, DIF) was tested for gender, bipolar diagnosis and current mental state. Item estimates and reliabilities were calculated.


Three items (29, 30, 32) had unacceptable fit to the Rasch unidimensional model. Item 14 displayed significant DIF for gender and items 8 and 17 for current mental state. Item estimates confirmed that not all items measure hypomania equally.


This sample was recruited as part of a large ongoing genetic epidemiology study of bipolar disorder and may not be fully representative of the broader clinical population of individuals with bipolar disorder.


The HCL-32 is unidimensional in practice, but measurements may be further strengthened by the removal of four items. Re-scored linear measurements may be more appropriate for clinical research.

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Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: HCL-32, Hypomania, Bipolar disorder, screening, Rasch analysis, multidimensionality
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Divisions: College of Health, Life and Environmental Sciences > School of Nursing and Midwifery
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Depositing User: Katherine Gordon-Smith
Date Deposited: 28 Oct 2016 13:46
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2020 17:14

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