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Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

Sutton, M.A. and Reis, S. and Riddick, S.N. and Dragosits, U. and Nemitz, E. and Theobald, M.R. and Tang, Y.S. and Braban, C.F. and Vieno, M. and Dore, A.J. and Mitchell, R.F. and Wanless, S. and Daunt, F. and Fowler, D. and Blackall, T.D. and Milford, C. and Flechard, C.R. and Loubet, B. and Massad, R. and Cellier, P. and Personne, E. and Cohour, P.F. and Clarisse, L. and Van Damme, M. and Ngadi, Y. and Clerbaux, C. and Skjøth, C. and Geels, C. and Hertel, O. and Wichink Kruit, R.J. and Pinder, R.W. and Bash, J.O. and Walker, J.T. and Simpson, D. and Horva´th, L. and Misselbrook, T.H. and Bleeker, A. and Dentener, F. and de Vries, W. (2013) Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 368 (1621). ISSN 0261-0523

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Abstract

Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission–deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 58C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28–67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45–85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89–179) Tg by 2100.

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Originally deposited as National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit (NPARU)

Uncontrolled Keywords: ammonia, emission, deposition, atmospheric modelling
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Academic Departments > Institute of Science and the Environment
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Depositing User: Carsten Skjoth
Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2013 10:15
Last Modified: 18 Feb 2016 11:30
URI: https://eprints.worc.ac.uk/id/eprint/2313

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