University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

Ethnic differences in receipt of psychological interventions in Early Intervention in Psychosis services in England – a cross-sectional study

Schlief, M., Rich, N., Rains, L.S., Baldwin, H., Rojas-Garcia, A., Nyikavaranda, P., Persaud, K., Dare, C., French, P., Loyd-Evans, B., Crawford, M., Smith, Jo, Kirkbride, J.B. and Johnson, S. (2023) Ethnic differences in receipt of psychological interventions in Early Intervention in Psychosis services in England – a cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Research. ISSN Print: 0165-1781 Online: 1872-7123

Text (Journal Pre-Proof published online)
1-s2.0-S0165178123004791-main.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (1MB) | Preview


There is some evidence of differences in psychosis care provision by ethnicity. We investigated variations in the receipt of CBTp and family intervention across ethnic groups in Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) teams throughout England, where national policy mandates offering these interventions to all.

We included data on 29,610 service users from the National Clinical Audit of Psychosis (NCAP), collected between 2018 and 2021. We conducted mixed effects logistic regression to examine odds ratios of receiving an intervention (CBTp, family intervention, either intervention) across 17 ethnic groups while accounting for the effect of years and variance between teams and adjusting for individual- (age, gender, occupational status) and team-level covariates (care-coordinator caseload, inequalities strategies).

Compared with White British people, every minoritized ethnic group, except those of mixed Asian-White and mixed Black African-White ethnicities, had significantly lower adjusted odds of receiving CBTp. People of Black African, Black Caribbean, non-African/Caribbean Black, non-British/Irish White, and of “any other” ethnicity also experienced significantly lower adjusted odds of receiving family intervention.

Pervasive inequalities in receiving CBTp for first episode psychosis exist for almost all minoritized ethnic groups, and family intervention for many groups. Investigating how these inequalities arise should be a research priority.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information:

This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: First episode psychosis, Ethnicity, Inequalities, CBTp, Family intervention
Divisions: College of Health, Life and Environmental Sciences > School of Allied Health and Community
Related URLs:
Copyright Info: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Depositing User: Jo Smith
Date Deposited: 24 Oct 2023 11:42
Last Modified: 24 Oct 2023 11:42

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item
Worcester Research and Publications is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. More information and software credits.