University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

Effects of different goal orientations and virtual opponents performance level on pacing strategy and performance in cycling time trials

Crivoi do Camo, E., Renfree, Andrew ORCID: and Barroso, R. (2022) Effects of different goal orientations and virtual opponents performance level on pacing strategy and performance in cycling time trials. European Journal of Sport Science, 22 (4). pp. 491-498. ISSN Print: 1746-1391 Online: 1536-7290

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We investigated the effects of different performance goals (best time vs. beat the opponent) on pacing behaviour during a 10-km cycling race and explored the influence of different performance level of opponents on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), affective feelings and self-efficacy. Thirteen cyclists performed two time-trials (TT) and two races against a faster (FAST +6%) or a slower (SLOW –3%) virtual opponent. Power output (PO), RPE, affective feelings and self-efficacy were recorded at each kilometer point. Race average and race phases
[starting (P1= first kilometer); first half (P2=2nd to 5th km); second half (P3=6th to 9th km) and final sprint (FS=last kilometer)] were analyzed. There was no difference in performance, assessed by race time between conditions (p=0.84). PO during TT was lower in P3 compared to FS (p=0.03; ES 0.6; 90%CI 0.4 to 0.7). In SLOW and FAST, PO was higher in P1 compared to other phases (p<0.05). PO in FS was higher in TT compared to FAST (p=0.01; ES -0.97; 90%IC -1.4 to -0.5). RPE increased and affective feelings decreased during all conditions. Selfefficacy was stable through TT and SLOW, but decreased during FAST with higher values in P1 compared to P2 (p=0.01; ES -1.1; 90%IC -1.6 to -0.6), P3 (p<0.001; ES -2.2; 90%IC -2.8 to -1.6 ) and FS (p<0.001; ES -2.6; 90%IC -3.3 to -1.8). Pacing behaviour, specifically starting and final sprint, was affected by virtual opponents independent of performance level,
demonstrating the importance of goal orientation.

Item Type: Article
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Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: cycling, performance, pacing, self-efficacy, affect, behaviour, endurance, psychology
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Q Science > QP Physiology
Divisions: College of Business, Psychology and Sport > School of Sport and Exercise Science
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Depositing User: Andrew Renfree
Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2021 12:24
Last Modified: 19 May 2022 10:21

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