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From Deployment to Debriefing: Introducing the D.I.A.M.O.N.D. Model of Hostage and Crisis Negotiation

Grubb, Amy ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2918-6534, Brown, S. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5859-4214, Bowen, Erica ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8006-2364 and Hall, P. (2020) From Deployment to Debriefing: Introducing the D.I.A.M.O.N.D. Model of Hostage and Crisis Negotiation. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal. ISSN Print: 1561-4263 Online: 1477-271X (In Press)

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Abstract

Hostage and crisis negotiation is one tactical option available to incident commanders when responding to critical incidents. Whilst several models of negotiation exist, there is limited research addressing negotiation from a United Kingdom perspective. This paper presents findings from semi-structured interviews with 15 negotiators from nine police forces in England. Data were analysed using grounded theory and 6 primary, 11 secondary, 19 tertiary, and 23 quaternary categories were identified to depict the procedural, operational and communicational aspects of negotiation. Findings indicate that negotiation takes place sequentially in three stages, with the core aspects being conceptualised using the D.I.A.M.O.N.D. mnemonic: 1) Deployment; 2) Information and intelligence gathering; 3) Assessment of risk and threat; 4) Methods of communication; 5) Open dialogue with subject; 6) Negotiator toolbox and repertoire, and 7) Debriefing procedures. The model represents the first attempt at modelling negotiation from an Anglo-centric perspective and provides insight into the entire critical incident management process, as opposed to focusing solely on the aspect of communication between negotiator and subject that has historically dominated the literature. The model highlights the breadth and complexity of the negotiator role and enables several recommendations to be made in relation to training and operational support of negotiators.

Item Type: Article
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Staff and students at the University of Worcester can access the full-text of the online published article via the official URL. External users should check availability with their local library or Interlibrary Requests Service.

Uncontrolled Keywords: hostage negotiation, crisis negotiation, police negotiation, conflict resolution, crisis communication
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: College of Business, Psychology and Sport > School of Psychology
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Depositing User: Dr Amy Grubb
Date Deposited: 07 Jan 2020 16:28
Last Modified: 21 Feb 2020 14:02
URI: https://eprints.worc.ac.uk/id/eprint/9028

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