University of Worcester Worcester Research and Publications

The Impact of an Evidence-Informed Spinal Cord Injury Activities of Daily Living Education Manual (SADL-eM): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

Mostafa, M. A., Plastow, N. A., Savin-Baden, Maggi and Ayele, B. (2022) The Impact of an Evidence-Informed Spinal Cord Injury Activities of Daily Living Education Manual (SADL-eM): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 11 (7). e30611. ISSN 1929-0748

Text (Open Access article)
PDF.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (204kB) | Preview


Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic injury associated with functional loss and life-threatening complications. Many people with SCI in the Gaza Strip of Palestine are discharged from inpatient rehabilitation to the community while still lacking many daily life skills. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) seeks to test the impact of the Spinal Cord Injury Activities of Daily Living Education Manual (SADL-eM)—an evidence-based occupational therapy patient educational intervention—on rehabilitation outcomes.

The proposed trial aims to evaluate the SADL-eM intervention compared with standard treatment among people with SCI.

This is a parallel RCT with two study arms: intervention and control. A total of 90 patients treated in inpatient rehabilitation settings will be randomly allocated to two study groups. Both groups will receive standard care. The intervention group will also use the SADL-eM with their treating occupational therapist during rehabilitation. The SADL-eM is a comprehensive activities of daily living (ADL) educational tool that was codeveloped with people with SCI and stakeholders across Gaza. The self-report version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure will be used on admission (ie, baseline measure) and after 6 weeks as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include the third version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure, the Private Religiousness Practices Scale, the Organizational Religiousness Short-Form, additional ADL domains covered by the education manual, and adherence to the intervention. The effect of the intervention will be determined using repeated-measures analysis of variance.

This study will be conducted from April 2021 through December 2022, with results expected to be available in January 2023.

If the SADL-eM is demonstrated as clinically effective, this will have significant implications for occupational therapy interventions in low- and middle-income countries.

Trial Registration: NCT04735887;

JMIR Res Protoc 2022;11(7):e30611


Item Type: Article
Additional Information:

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

Uncontrolled Discrete Keywords: occupational therapy, educational intervention, activities of daily living, spinal cord injury, clinical trials
Divisions: College of Arts, Humanities and Education > School of Education
Related URLs:
Copyright Info: ©Moussa Abu Mostafa, Nicola Ann Plastow, Maggi Savin-Baden, Birhanu Ayele. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (, 22.07.2022.
Depositing User: Maggi Savin-Baden
Date Deposited: 18 Aug 2022 14:38
Last Modified: 18 Aug 2022 14:39

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item
Worcester Research and Publications is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. More information and software credits.